Chilli/Capsicum

Crop Overview

India is the world’s largest producer, consumer and exporter of chilli peppers. Guntur in Andhra Pradesh produces 30% of all chillies produced in India and the state of Andhra Pradesh as a whole contributes 75% of India’s Chilli exports. Chilli is more prone to pest attack and at a conservative estimate cause about 35-70% losses. The management of following pests and disease are most serious from quarantine point of views for exports and residue free harvests of Chilli fruits.

 

Major Pests & Damage

Thrips

Thrips

(Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood)

Red Spider Mites

Red Spider Mites

(Tetranychus spp.)

American Bollworm

American Bollworm

(Helicoverpa armigera)

Aphid

Aphid

(Myzus persicae( Sulzar)

Yellow mites

Yellow mites

(Polyphagotarsonemus latus)

White Fly

White Fly

(Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)

Armyworm

Armyworm

(Spodoptera litura)

 

Major Diseases

Die Back/Fruit rot
Die Back/Fruit rot

(Colletotrichum capsici)

Chilli fruit rot and dieback is a fungal problem witnessed globally. This drying up spreads from the flower stalks to the stem, resulting in dieback of the branches and stem.

Powdery Mildew
Powdery Mildew

(Leveillula taurica)

The initial symptoms of powdery mildew on peppers are a powdery-white fungal growth on the undersides of leaves with light-green to yellow blotches on the upper leaf surfaces. These areas turn brown with time, and the affected areas coalesce, causing a general yellowing of the entire leaf.

Leaf Curl Viruses and Mosaic Complexes
Leaf Curl Viruses and Mosaic Complexes

Symptoms of Chilli Leaf Curl Virus are characterized by upward curling of leaf margins, yellowing of veins and reduction of leaf size. Additionally, leaf veins become swollen with shortening of internodes and petioles. Older leaves become leathery and brittle.

Root Knot Nematodes
Root Knot Nematodes

(Meloidogyny spp.)

Nematode infestations damage the plant roots, and therefore symptoms reflect poorly functioning root systems. Aboveground symptoms of severe root knot and stubby root nematode infestations include patches of chlorotic, stunted, necrotic, or wilted plants.

Fusarium Wilt
Fusarium Wilt

(Fusarium solani)

Fusarium wilt is caused by a fungus, which is not easy to see on the plant. The disease enters through the roots of the plant and will affect the plant from the roots to the leaves. Afterwards, the leaves and fruit also start to turn yellow and become wilted.

Bacterial Leaf Spots
Bacterial Leaf Spots

(Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria)

Early symptoms appear on lower side of leaves. Initially water-soaked circular or irregular lesions occur that become necrotic with brown centers and thin chlorotic borders. Lesions on leaves enlarge up to 10mm in diameter sunken on the top surface and slightly raised on the bottom.

Leaf Spot
Leaf Spot

(Alternaria solani and Cecospora capsici)

As the spots become more numerous, they gradually coalesce to form large leaf lesions. At later stages of the infection, leaves turn yellow and wilt or drop, exposing fruits to sunscald.

Major Diseases

Die Back/Fruit rot
Die Back/Fruit rot

(Colletotrichum capsici)

Chilli fruit rot and dieback is a fungal problem witnessed globally. This drying up spreads from the flower stalks to the stem, resulting in dieback of the branches and stem.

Powdery Mildew
Powdery Mildew

(Leveillula taurica)

The initial symptoms of powdery mildew on peppers are a powdery-white fungal growth on the undersides of leaves with light-green to yellow blotches on the upper leaf surfaces. These areas turn brown with time, and the affected areas coalesce, causing a general yellowing of the entire leaf.

Leaf Curl Viruses and Mosaic Complexes
Leaf Curl Viruses and Mosaic Complexes

Symptoms of Chilli Leaf Curl Virus are characterized by upward curling of leaf margins, yellowing of veins and reduction of leaf size. Additionally, leaf veins become swollen with shortening of internodes and petioles. Older leaves become leathery and brittle.

Root Knot Nematodes
Root Knot Nematodes

(Meloidogyny spp.)

Nematode infestations damage the plant roots, and therefore symptoms reflect poorly functioning root systems. Aboveground symptoms of severe root knot and stubby root nematode infestations include patches of chlorotic, stunted, necrotic, or wilted plants.

Fusarium Wilt
Fusarium Wilt

(Fusarium solani)

Fusarium wilt is caused by a fungus, which is not easy to see on the plant. The disease enters through the roots of the plant and will affect the plant from the roots to the leaves. Afterwards, the leaves and fruit also start to turn yellow and become wilted.

Bacterial Leaf Spots
Bacterial Leaf Spots

(Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria)

Early symptoms appear on lower side of leaves. Initially water-soaked circular or irregular lesions occur that become necrotic with brown centers and thin chlorotic borders. Lesions on leaves enlarge up to 10mm in diameter sunken on the top surface and slightly raised on the bottom.

Leaf Spot
Leaf Spot

(Alternaria solani and Cecospora capsici)

As the spots become more numerous, they gradually coalesce to form large leaf lesions. At later stages of the infection, leaves turn yellow and wilt or drop, exposing fruits to sunscald.

Nutritional Deficiency

Magnesium

Zinc

Boron

Sulphur

 

Recommended Products & Their Applications

 
Hands in the Soil

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